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<< teshimaimashita | teshouganai; tetamaranai >>

て形+しまう (て仕舞う・て終う・て了う) ([てしまう] )(teshimau)
    Meaning: wind up ____ing, end up ___ing, finish ____ing その動作・作用が完了して、もとへ戻らない意を表す。特に、取り返しがつかない意を表す。
    Example: I wound up laughing.
    JLPT Level: 3
    Category: grammar
    Author: sanskritip

  [ Edit This Grammar Entry ]
Verb(て) + しまう。 
It may be worth mentioning that sometimes
Vて しまいました is sometimes shortened to
Literally, しまう means "to finish." Do not be surprised to find this word used only in this meaning sometimes, with no "undesired"-connotation.  
-てしまう - sometimes contracted to ちゃう 

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ex #4754   その映画を見て泣いてしまった 
Watching that movie, I ended up crying.  
ex #5275   宿題はもうやってしまいました 
I've finished my homework.  
ex #5277   いつも本を読んでいるうちに眠ってしまう 
I always read myself to sleep.  
ex #5278   彼は稼ぐ金をすべて本に使ってしまう 
What money he earns he spends on books.  
ex #5279   そういった話をしていると議論になってしまう 
That kind of talk leads to an argument.  
ex #5280   それをやってしまうまで、ここを出てはなりません。 
Don't leave here until you have done it.  
ex #5281   「あら、ごめんなさい。どうやら間違え電話をしてしまったようだね。」 
"Oh, I'm sorry. I guess I (ended up) have the wrong number."  
ex #5282   2日後に食べ物がなくなってしまった 
After two days our food gave out.  
ex #5283   5分と走らないうちに息切れしてしまった 
I had not run five minutes when I got out of breath.  
ex #6786   前から欲しかった本がやっと手に入ったものだから、早速徹夜して終わりまで読んでしまった 
Because I finally came into possession of a book I was looking after for a long time, at once in a sleepless night I finished reading it until the end.  
ex #6999   遅れてしまいました、すみません。  
Sorry I'm late.  
ex #7000   遅れちゃった、すみません。 
Sorry I'm late.  
ex #8608   春名は出来ないとドンドン振り付け変えちゃうからわけ分かんなくなちゃう.  
Whenever you can't do the moves, you change the choreography more and more, and it's making me totally lost! .  

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bamboo4The title should be "shimau" instead of "teshimau." "te" is a particle and does not form the root of "shimau." 
ninja_kWouldn't this fall under the other category of しまう?「その映画を見て泣いてしまった」にはほかの翻訳あると思いますが。。。 Watching that movie, I cried (not that I wanted to, or expected to cry). Perhaps because this would be a case where there isn't regret?
eastmaelI think 〜てしまう can imply two meanings:
1) completed
2) to my regret
I'm really not sure how one can distinguish which one a person is trying to imply.. I guess it's based on the context of what one is saying?
I agree with eastmael. Here is some explanation from text :
E.g. : 作文をかいてしまったら、公園に行きましょう

E.g.: 1.大切な結婚指輪を無くしてしまいました。

I think if something bad happened unwillingly, 〜しまう goes to the 2nd meaning.Otherwise, if it is something done without any special adverse effects or just a plain task or action, it goes to the 1st meaning.
tigertI don`t know about everyone else, but I have never heard しまう used to mean "I finished Ving"
It always seems to have a negative meaning attached to it.
赤毛Tigertさん, I added example #6786 caught from JPLT2 in this level 3 entry exactly for the note you wrote. 
kaligalI'd like to offer a more natural translation of the sentence beginning with 前から欲しかった本。。。

I got a book I had craved for a long time, so I immediately began reading, and read all night long until I finally finished it.

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