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Performing an action on a subordinate clause
modify a noun. We will extend the functionality of subordinate clauses by learning how to perform an action on a subordinate clause. Obviously, we cannot simply
attach the 「を」 particle to a subordinate clause because the 「を」 particle only applies to noun phrases. We need something to encapsulate the
subordinate clause into a unit that we can perform actions on. This is done by making a quoted phrase.
While in English, you can just add quotes and a comma to make a quotation, Japanese requires attaching 「と」 at the end of the quote. This is
Unlike quotes in English, we can perform many different types of actions on the
quote besides the standard "he said", "she said", etc. For example, we can perform the action, "to think" or "to hear" to produce phrases such as, "I think [subclause]" or "I heard [subclause]"
This is very important in Japanese because Japanese speakers seldom affirm definite statements.
The direct quote
We'll learn the simplest type of quoted phrase, which is the direct quote. Basically, you are directly quoting something that was said.
This is done by simply enclosing the statement in quotes, adding 「と」 and then inserting the appropriate verb. The most common verbs associated
with a direct quote would be 「言う」 and 「聞く」 but you may use any verbs related
to direct quotation such as: 「叫ぶ」, 「呼ぶ」, 「呟く」, etc.
This type of quotation is often used for dialogue in novels and other narrative works.
（１） アリスさんが、「寒い」と言った。- Alice said, "Cold"
（２） 「今日は授業がない」と先生から聞いたんだけど。- It is that I heard from the teacher, "There is no class today."
The verb does not need to be directly connected to the subordinate clause. As long as the verb that applies to the subordinate clause comes before any
other verb, you can have any number of adjectives, adverbs or nouns in between.
（１） 「寒い」とアリスさんが言った。- "Cold," Alice said.
The interpreted quote
The second type of quote is the quote along the lines of what someone actually said. It's not a word-for-word quote. Since this is not a
direct quote, no quotations are needed. You can also express thoughts as an interpreted quote as well. By using this and the verb 「思う」 you can
say you think that something is so-and-so. You will hear Japanese people use this all the time. You can also use the verb 「考える」 when you
are considering something.
（１） 先生から今日は授業がないと聞いたんだけど。- I heard from the teacher that there is no class today.
（２） これは、日本語で何（なん）と言いますか。- What do you call this in Japanese? (lit: What do you say for this in
（３） 私はアリスと言います。- I am called Alice. (lit: As for me, you say Alice.)
In an interpreted quote, the meaning of 「言う」 may change as you see in examples （２） and （３）. Actually, as you can see from the literal translation,
the meaning remains the same in Japanese but changes only when translated to normal English.
Some examples of thoughts being used as quoted subordinate clauses.
（４） カレーを食べようと思ったけど、あきらめた。- I thought about setting out to eat curry but I gave up.
（５） 今、どこに行こうかと考えている。- Now, I'm considering where to set out to go.
Unlike the direct quotation, which you can just copy as is, if the quoted subordinate clause is a state of being for a noun or na-adjective, you have to
explicitly include the declarative 「だ」 to show this.
（１） 彼は、これは何（なん）だと言いましたか。- What did he say this is?
（２） 彼は高校生だと聞いたけど、信じられない。- I heard that he is a high school student but I can't believe it.
Notice how 「だ」 was added to explicitly declare the state-of-being that is highlighted in the English translation.
The casual version of 「と」: って
You may be surprised to hear that there is a shorter and casual version of the quoted subordinate clause since it's already only one hiragana
character: 「と」. However, the important point here is that by using this casual shortcut, you can drop the rest of the sentence and hope your audience can
understand everything from context.
- Tomoko said that she's going overseas next year.
- I already told you I have no money.
- Huh? What did you say?
- I heard you don't have time now, is that true?
- You don't have time now (I heard), is that true?
「って」 can also be used to talk about practically anything, not just to quote something that was said. You can hear 「って」 being used just about everywhere in casual
speech. Most of the time it is used in place of the 「は」 particle to simply bring up a topic, meaning "about such-and-such..."
- About tomorrow, I hear that it's going to rain.
- About Alice, she's a very good person, right?
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