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<< nitaeru | nitaru >>

に対して [にたいして] (nitaishite)
    Meaning: toward; to; in contrast to; whereas; in regard to; in; per
    Example: Up until now, Japan has taken a closed policy toward foreign countries.
    JLPT Level: 2
    Category: grammar
    Author: dc

  [ Edit This Grammar Entry ]

  Notes:  
に対して :1.〜に、〜へ、〜に向けて
        (動作の対象、方向を示す)
(towards, to)
       2.対比を表す
(in contrast, in comparison)
 
()
*「Nに対して」 is used to express someone's attitude/action toward someone/something as in example #; contrast/comparison as in example #; confrontation as in example #; interest as in example #; and the sense of 'per' as in example #.

*「N1 に対して N2」 means 'N2 in regard to N1," as in example # (although, the 'a' in American should be capitalized). It can also mean 'against' as exemplified by example #.

*「Nに対して」 and 「Nのに対して」 are different in meaning. The latter means 'whereas' (see example #), but the former doesn't.

FORMATION:
N + に対し(て)
V(plain form) + に対し(て)
いA + に対し(て)
なA(な/である/だった/であった) + のに対して
N1 + に(対する/対しての) + N2
 
(rubyhatchet)

[ Add Note(s) ]
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on Rikai.com

ex #62   アメリカでは離婚に対しての考え方が大分変わってきた。 
In america attitudes toward divorce have greatly changed.  
 [edit]  
(dc)
ex #547   先生に対して 
towards ones teacher  
 [edit]  
(dc)
ex #549   女性の地位はまだ低いのに対して欧米では比較的に高い。 
womens position is quite low whereas in europe it is relatively high.  
 [edit]  
(dc)
ex #550   話すのに対して 
talked, whereas  
 [edit]  
(dc)
ex #6389   これまで日本は外交に対して、閉鎖的な政策を取ってきた。  
Up until now, Japanese has taken a closed policy toward foreign countries.  
 [edit]  
(rubyhatchet)
ex #6390   日本の大学に入学するのが難しいのに対して、アメリカの大学は卒業するのが難しい。  
Whereas entering university is difficult in Japan, graduating from university is difficult in America.  
 [edit]  
(rubyhatchet)
ex #6391   市民は増税に対して強く反対してる。  
The citizens are strongly opposed to the tax hike.  
 [edit]  
(rubyhatchet)
ex #6392   私は政治に対して強い関心がある。  
I have a strong interest in politics.  
 [edit]  
(rubyhatchet)
ex #6393   手数料は一万円に対して、五百円です。 
The commission charge will be 500 yen per 10,000 yen.  
 [edit]  
(rubyhatchet)
ex #6394   その経済学者の説に(対する/対して)反論はなかった。 
There wasn't a counterargument against the economist's thesis.  
 [edit]  
(rubyhatchet)

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  Comments:  
sagittariusIt seems that there are two basic meanings of に対して. First に対して by itself, which means 'regarding' or 'towards' (#) and のに対して, which means "whereas" (#). do you think the two forms deserve separate entries? 
bamboo4In ex #,慢心 should be correct to 関心.

In ex #, we would normally say 手数料は一万円について、五百円です, instead of 対して.
 
Makai no Kitsunebamboo4, why that difference? Is there a matter of different meanings? 

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