掛かる [かかる] (kakaru)
Meaning: BEGIN TO〜；BE ABOUT TO DO〜；ALMOST DO〜
Example: 死にかかった= almost died
JLPT Level: 2
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| Notes: |
→ an event is about to take place
→ the VB is usually intransitive and has to be a Non-volitional, punctual VB
→ can be replaced by KAKERU without a substantial change of meaning
死に掛けた＝was half dead
：a Punctual VB with the auxiliary VB いる expresses a repeated action or a state after an action was taken or something took place:
知る（=>知っている）(get to know after studying)
死ぬ（=>死んでいる）(die after living)
忘れる（=>忘れている）(as a result of the passage of time)
：a Non-volitional VB usually does not take the voltional form, the imperative form and the potential form.
-Non-volitional VBs are classified into emotive VBs and non-emotive VBs
a) emotive VBs: 喜ぶ、悲しむ、好む、怒る、嫌う、苦しむ、…
b).non-emotive VBｓ： 出来る、要る、知る、見える、聞こえる、似合う、違う、疲れる、分かる）
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| Comments: |
|luiszm||The explanation with the VBryk, VBs and non volitional VBs are not very clear to understand.|
I don't understand why 知っている means [get to know after studying].
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