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<< iru | is, am, are (polite, NA-adjective) >>

da / desu ([da / desu] )(is, am, are)
    Meaning: is, am, are da / desu
    Example: (NA-adjective) + da / desu
    JLPT Level: 0
    Category: grammar
    Author: Reuben Pitman

  [ Edit This Grammar Entry ]

  Notes:  
I-adjective is a Japanese adjective that ends with i in the dictionary form. An NA-adjective is a Japanese adjective that does not end with i. This is a sentence formula of [(I-adjective) + desu]. An I-adjective doesn't use "da" as a sentence ending. An NA-adjective is any Japanese adjective that doesn't end with i. And the sentence formula of [(NA-adjective) + da/desu]. NA-adjective sentence ends in "da" the plain form and "desu" the polite form. 
(Rushyne)
desu, how "to be" came "to be"

Pronounced as "deehs" with the "u" being whispered, or near slient.

There are two theories of how "Desu" came to be.

In both instances,  is a contraction of a verb.

Theory #
Some believe desu is a contraction of the verb "De arimasu".

As of today
"De arimasu" is still used in the military.
"De arimasu" originally came from a dialect of Choshu (now called Yamaguchi).
Choshu was one of the driving forces of Meiji Restoration. When ground troops were established, "De arimasu" became part of army speak.
"De arimasu" was not only reserved for the military. People used the expression, because retired veterans used it in their home-towns at the time.
As of today, "de arimasu" is still used in formal writing.

Theory #
 is the contraction of "de gozaimasu". "de gozaimasu" is very polite and used today in certain phrases, and formal writing. It's considered samurai speak now.

In both cases, after the caste system from the Edo period fell, everyone was made equal. Everyone also went to school, regardless to whether they were a poor merchants daughter, or of a higher class.

At this time, it is said that it was mostly the merchants daughters who started the contraction of the verb because the polite forms were too confusing to remember. Most merchants were very poor, and could not afford special education before this time. This is highly plausible.
In modern Japan, most children speak in plain speech, until they are taught polite Japanese in Elementary school. The tradition of polite Japanese being taught in school still exists.

Much to educators dismay at the time, the  tend did catch on, and it is now used today.

Other variations of 
Japanese is a continually changing language. Even desu is changing.

っす ssu is used in colloquial speech.
The copula is subject to dialectal variation throughout Japan, resulting in forms such as や ya (in Kansai) and じゃ ja (in Hiroshima).

ス su is used by the Yakuza as a shorter form of desu. This is typically used to sound a little more polite when speaking with authorities, but not going all out and using desu.
 
(Rinji_HalfElf)

[ Add Note(s) ]
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on Rikai.com

ex #5547   shizuka da. (plain) shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) quiet  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5549   Watashi wa shizuka da. (plain)Watashi wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
I am quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5550   Anata wa shizuka da. (plain)Anata wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5551   Kanojo wa shizuka da. (plain)Kanojo wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5552   Watashi tachi wa shizuka da. (plain)Watashi tachi wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
We are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5553   Anata tachi wa shizuka da. (plain)Anata tachi wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5554   Kanojora shizuka da. (plain)Kanojora shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5555   Kanojo tachi wa shizuka da. (plain)Kanojo tachi wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5556   Karera wa shizuka da. (plain)Karera wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5557   Kare tachi wa shizuka da. (plain)Kare tachi wa shizuka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are quiet.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5558   myabyaka da. (plain) myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) elegant  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5559   Watashi wa myabyaka da. (plain) Watashi wa myabyaka desu. (polite) 
I am elegant.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5560   Anata wa myabyaka da. (plain) Anata wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are elegant.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5561   Kanojo wa myabyaka da. (plain) Kanojo wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is elegant.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5562   Watashi tachi wa myabyaka da. (plain) Watashi tachi wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
We are elegant. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5563   Anata tachi wa myabyaka da. (plain) Anata tachi wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are elegant.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5564   Kanojora wa myabyaka da. (plain)Kanojora wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are elegant. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5565   Kanojo tachi wa myabyaka da. (plain) Kanojo tachi wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are elegant. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5566   Karera wa myabyaka da. (plain) Karera wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are elegant. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5567   Kare tachi wa myabyaka da. (plain)Kare tachi wa myabyaka desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are elegant. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5568   chikara da. (plain) chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5569   Watashi wa chikara da. (plain) Watashi wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
I am powerful. am powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5570   Anata wa chikara da. (plain) Anata wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5571   Kanojo wa chikara da. (plain) Kanojo wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5572   Watashi tachi wa chikara da. (plain) Watashi tachi wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
We are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5573   Anata tachi wa chikara da. (plain) Anata tachi wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5574   Kanojora chikara da. (plain) Kanojora chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5575   Kanojo tachi wa chikara da. (plain) Kanojo tachi wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5576   Karera wa chikara da. (plain) Karera wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5577   Kare tachi wa chikara da. (plain) Kare tachi wa chikara desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are powerful. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5578   makoto da. (plain) makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) real (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5579   Watashi wa makoto da. (plain) Watashi wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
I am real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5580   Anata wa makoto da. (plain) Anata wa makotodesu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5581   Kanojo wa makoto da. (plain) Kanojo wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5582   Watashi tachi wa makoto da. (plain) Watashi wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
We are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5583   Anata tachi wa makoto da. (plain) Anata tachi wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5584   Kanojora wa makoto da. (plain) Kanojora wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5585   Kanojo tachi wa makoto da. (plain) Kanojo tachi wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5586   Karera wa makoto da. (plain) Karera wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5587   Kare tachi wa makoto da. (plain) Kare tachi wa makoto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are real. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5588   moto da. (plain) moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) source (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5589   Watashi wa moto da. (plain)Watashi wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
I am the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5590   Anata wa moto da. (plain)Anata wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are the source. are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5591   Kanojo wa moto da. (plain)Konojo wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5592   Watashi tachi wa moto da. (plain)Watashi tachi wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
Wa are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5593   Anata tachi wa moto da. (plain)Anata tachi wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5594   Kanojora moto da. (plain)Kanojora moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5595   Kanojo tachi wa moto da. (plain)Kanojo tachi wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5596   Karera wa moto da. (plain)Karera wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5597   Kare tachi wa moto da. (plain)Kare tachi wa moto desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5598   shita da. (plain)shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) under (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5599   Watashi wa shita da. (plain)Watashi wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
I am under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5600   Anata wa shita da. (plain)Anata wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5601   Kanojo wa shita da. (plain)Kanojo wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5602   Watashi tachi wa shita da. (plain)Watashi tachi wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
We are under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5603   Anata tachi wa shita da. (plain)Anata tachi wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5604   Kanojora shita da. (plain)Kanojora shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are the source. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5605   Kanojo tachi wa shita da. (plain)Kanojo tachi wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5606   Karera wa shita da. (plain)Karera wa shita desu. (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5607   Kare tachi wa shita da. (plain)Kare tachi wa shita desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are under. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5608   ooyake da. (plain)ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) fair (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5609   Watashi wa ooyake da. (plain)Watashi wa ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
I am fair. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5610   Anata wa ooyake da. (plain)Anata wa ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are fair. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5611   Kanojo wa ooyake da. (plain)Kanojo wa ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
She is fair. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5612   Watashi tachi wa ooyake da. (plain)Watashi tachi wa ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
We are fair. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5613   Anata tachi wa ooyake da. (plain)Anata tachi wa ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
You are fair. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5614   Kanojora ooyake da. (plain)Kanojora ooyake desu (polite)(NA-adjective) + da/desu 
They are fair. (NA-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5649   ookii.(plain)ookiidesu. (polite)(i-adjective) + da/desu 
(is, am, are) big (i-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5650   Atara-shi (dictionary spelling)atarakii. (plain)atarakii desu. (polite)(i-adjective) + desu 
(is, am, are) new. (i-adjective) + (coupula)  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5651   (is, am, are) near.  
chikai. (plain) chikai desu. (polite)(I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5652   I am near.  
Watashi wa chikai.(plain) Watashi wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5653   You are near.  
Anata wa chikai.(plain) Anata wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5654   She is near.  
Kanojo wa chikai.(plain) Kanojo wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5655   We are near.  
Watashi tachi wa chikai.(plain) Watashi tachi wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5656   You are near.  
Anata tachi wa chikai.(plain) Anata tachi wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5657   They are near.  
Kanojora chikai.(plain) Kanojora chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5658   They are near.  
Kanojo tachi wa chikai.(plain) Kanojo tachi wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5659   They are near.  
Karera wa chikai.(plain) Karera wa chikai.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5660   They are near. 
Kare tachi wa chikai.(plain) Kare tachi wa chikai desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5661   akarui. (plain) akarui desu. (polite)(I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
(is, am, are) bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5662   Watashi wa akarui.(plain) Watashi wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
I am bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5663   Anata wa akarui.(plain) Anata wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
You are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5664   Kanojo wa akarui.(plain) Kanojo wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
She is bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5665   Watashi tachi wa akarui.(plain) Watashi tachi wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
We are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5666   Anata tachi wa akarui.(plain) Anata tachi wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
You are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5667   Kanojora akarui.(plain) Kanojora akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
They are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5668   Kanojo tachi wa akarui.(plain) Kanojo tachi wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
They are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5669   Karera wa akarui.(plain) Karera wa akarui.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
They are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)
ex #5670   Kare tachi wa akarui.(plain) Kare tachi wa akarui desu.(polite) (I-adjective) + (plain)/desu  
They are bright.  
 [edit]  
(Rushyne)

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