いる (居る) [いる] (iru)
Meaning: Is (animate)
Example: There's a dog in that car.
JLPT Level: 4
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| Notes: |
Like aru iru is also an stative (non-action) verb. Iru, unlike aru is used to express "is" or "exists" for living things, people, or beings, with plants being excluded.
Like aru, iru uses ni/に to indicate the location when specified.
iru also is used as an auxillary verb to form progressive tenses. Similar in function to English's verb "to be" in the following: He is going, I was going, We are going, etc.
iru does not require the use of ga/が.
When iru is used in an auxillary form, it can be used with non-living things just like aru.
For an auxillary form, iru is usually preceeded by the -te form of the other verb. Then iru is conjugated accordingly.
Aruite imasu. --> (He/she,you/it/etc.) is walking.
Aruite imashita. (He/she,you/it/etc.) was walking.
Note that iru cannot be used for the future tense, as there isn't a real future tense in Japan. Therefore, sentences like "He will be going." will not exist.
iru is commonly written with kana alone, instead of kanji. Kanji can be used in written Japanese to indicate subtle nuances in meaning.
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| See Also: |
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- aru (iru for living things, aru for objects.
I find a way to remember which is which is that people _need_ (iru is also the verb to need) stuff.) [dc]
- da (だ and いる can both indicate the presense of something living - used in different ways.) [Amatuka]
- ga (The particle が is used in いる sentences) [Amatuka]
| Comments: |
|Amatuka||'iru' for _need_ has a) a different kanji and b) is godan not ichidan.|
"kare wa iranai" "I don't need him(boyfriends)"
"kare wa inai" "He's not here(I don't have a boyfriend)"
|your name||I remember that "iru" is for living things because it is used in the construction te+iru for the present progressive tense. And it is usually a living creature that is presently doing something. This isn't always true I guess, but it helps me remember the difference.|| |
|Amatuka||ている teiru can't be used with the verbs of existance (e.g. ある aru and いる iru)|| |
|Sasuke21||I thought you can say あっている when talking about past experience, as in: |
A：I expect you have already met my son, right?
B: I'm not sure, but I think I have.
please correct me if I'm wrong because I have been wondering about this! ^-^
|bamboo4||あっている is past of 会う＋いる and いる in this sense denotes the continuation of some status or event, here the fact that you have met and that situaiton continues to exist. || |
|zeptimius||My two Japanese (native) teachers say that iru applies only to animal life, or more specifically, as they say, 'something that has a heart'. So for trees, flowers etc. you use aru. Also, how about animals without hearts? I think those exist, like jellyfish or something.|| |
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