〜は [〜は] (ha)
Meaning: 'topic marker' (also shown as 'wa')
Example: X wa Y desu : X is Y
JLPT Level: 4
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| Notes: |
|Introducing は "wa" and です。"desu."|
the particle は marks the topic.
(Remember particles attach to the word which they follow, and that when は is a particle it is pronounced wa.)
です。functions like "is" or "topic is."
Is pronounced as "wah".
は a subject or topic marker.
は can appear as ha, or wa in romaji depending on the system used.
The kana used for は is usually pronounced as "hah", but pronounced as "wah" when used as a particle.
The same phenomenon happens in the word "dewa/deha" では in the negative conjugation of the verb .
In yakuza speech,
は、becomes や (yah).
Typically, the y sound is softened such that it sounds like "ah"
Ore ha --turns to-> Ore ya --but sounds like-> Ore a
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| See Also: |
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- da (X ha Y da (X は Y だ) and its variants are the most basic of Japanese sentence structures.) [Amatuka]
- mo (も can replace the topic marker は in a sentence.) [Amatuka]
- ha-2 (Note use of は to indicate contrast vs. indicating the topic of a sentence.) [Amatuka]
- ga (Compare / contrast が (subject) and は [ha / wa] (topic) markers.) [Amatuka]
| Comments: |
|Amatuka||See here and here for two very interesting Japanese pages on using ha vs. ga|| |
|Amatuka||When to use は vs が?|
Both sentences like 雨は降っている。[ame ha
futteiru] and 雨が降っている。[ame ga futteiru] are
valid, so working out when to use which form is a
First: In answering a question such as
Q. 机の上に何がありますか。[tsukue no ue ni nani ga arimasu ka]
A. 鉛筆があります。[enpitsu ga arimasu].
Here が is used.
|Amatuka||On the other hand if attention has been placed on something in advance and the question is asked with that object as the topic...|
Q. 本はどこにありますか。[hon ha doko ni arimasu ka.]
A. 本はイスの下にあります。[hon ha isu no shita ni arimasu]
then は is used.
|Amatuka||が is also used to indicate a specific choice.|
私が行きます。[watashi ga ikimasu]
_I'll_ go. (not any of the other possibilities).
|Amatuka||は is used for contrastative sentences (see ha-2).|
For example normally you'd say
犬が好きです。[inu ga suki desu] I like dogs.
However if you want to contrast how you feel about dogs with how you feel about other animals then
犬は好きだが、猫はどうも・・・[inu ha suki da ga, neko ha doumo ...]
I like _dogs_ but I really don't (get on with) cats.
|Amatuka||は [ha / wa] follows a noun or a noun phrase.|
(e.g. 犬は [inu ha] 'as for dogs'
知るのは [shiru no ha] 'as for what (I) know'
The latter case の nominalizes (turns into a noun) 知る)
N = noun
|deedrio||In [ex #], shouldnt it be: 皆さんはからどこですか?|
Or から皆さんはどこですか？ Wouldnt ex # just mean "Where is everyone"? Im no Japanese grammar expert but doesnt から mean from? And shouldnt から be used in ex #?
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