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<< gosinpainaku | greetings >>

ごとき, ごとく, ごとし ([ごとき, ごとく, ごとし] )(gotoki,gotoku,gotoshi)
    Meaning: Like, As if; resembelence, analogy, similarity 実際はそうではないが、まるで〜のような/に (文語体)
    Example: I want to fly like a bird.
    JLPT Level: 1
    Category: grammar
    Author: blabby

  [ Edit This Grammar Entry ]

  Notes:  
Noun + (の) + ごとき + Noun
Noun + ごとく + Adjective/Verb
 
(blabby)
Not to be confused with <b>ことごとく</b>, which is an unrelated word meaning 'entirely':

 ことごとく信じる。
 Believe something totally.
 
(mochabean)
Ref # Kanzen Master Level 1 - p62 - no.53 
(LR)
Ref # A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar p103 
(LR)
Written, Formal 
(LR)
ごとし indicates similarity. It changes form depending on where it is in a sentence, it's nuance/grammatical function, and whether it is attached to a verb or a noun. 
(LR)
One of the functions of ごとし / ごとき / ごとく is to mark a simile. 
(LR)
When か is inserted, it adds the nuance of doubt on the part of the speaker. 
(LR)
Used almost exclusively in written language. 
(LR)
Set Phrases

上述のごとく
As stated above

当然のごとく
As if it were a matter of course
 
(LR)








{NOUN} + のごとし[魚のごとし - s.o. is like a fish]
{VERBnon-past} + (が/かの) + ごとし[夢見るがかのごとし - as if s.o. were dreaming]
{NOUN} + (か) + のごとく[魚かのごとく泳ぐ s.o. swims as if they were a fish]
{NOUN} + (か) + ごとき + {NOUN}[夢のごとき人生 life like a dream]
{NOUN である / VERBnon-past} + (が/かの) ごとき + {NOUN}[山に登る (が/かの) ごとき人生 life like climbing a mountain]
 
(LR)

[ Add Note(s) ]
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on Rikai.com

ex #5427   烈火のごとき非難。 
Criticism like fire.  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5428   私のごとき初心者にとって、。。。 
For a beginner like me, ...  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5429   ジェット機のごとく空を飛ぶ。 
Fly through the sky like a jet.  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5430   以上のごとく 
As stated above...  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5431   常のごとく 
As usual.  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5432   生けるごとく 
As if it is alive.  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5433   ごとく空を飛ぶこと、これは人間の夢である。 
To fly through the sky like a bird; that is the dream of man.  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #5434   ライオンのごとく勇敢な人だ。 
That person is as brave as a lion.  
 [edit]  
(blabby)
ex #7986   その少年は飛ぶがごとき勢いで、駆け去った 
that boy ran away as if he was flying.  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7987   その少女はのごとき乙女であった。 
That girl was like a white lily.  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7988   前述したごとく、会議の日程が変更になりましたので、ご注意ください。 
As I mentioned before, the schedule for the meeting has changed so please take care.  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7989   あの社長は世の中の全てが自分の物であるかのごとくふるまっている。 
That company boss behaves as if all the world belongs to him.  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7990   人生は航海のごとし。 
Life is like a voyage  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7991   東京人は万人走っているかのごとし。 
Tokyoites all look as if they are always running  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7992   彼女は女王のごとく芸能界に君臨している。 
She dominates the showbusiness world as if she were a queen.  
 [edit]  
(LR)
ex #7993   のごとき新婚生活の後に悲劇が訪れた。 
Their dream -like , newly-wedded bliss was followed by tragedy.  
 [edit]  
(LR)

Help JGram by picking and editing examples!!
  See Also:  
[ Add a See Also ]
  Comments:  
blabbyVery formal written grammar. 
Miki# 私ごとき is ok, too.
# 生けるがごとく
# This is different. kotogotoku is written as 悉くor 尽く in kanji but I don't use them in kanji. hehe
 
blabbyMiki, thanks for your valuable advice.

In #, I understand that the の is optional but is # incorrect? Or are 生けるがごとく and 生けるごとく both acceptable? Google gives me 79 results to 31 respectively.

Rather than delete #, I marked it as "question" so other readers can see that it is different.
 
bamboo4ごとく or 如く is literal diction and not normally used (sounds pedantic) in conversational speech. ような or ように can usually replace ごとく.
As between 生けるがごとく and 生けるごとく, the former is the conventional usage, but the latter is more or less acceptable (with emphasis on "less").
 
「ごとく、ごとき」は「ように、ような」の古い言葉で、名詞の前に付かれて、改まった場所での会話や、硬い文章に使われます。 
生けるかのごとく 
bamboo4To be consistent, # should be deleted - not just marking it like blabby suggests.
 
mochabeanI've overwritten # with an example which contains the grammar point and moved the previous example up into notes.
That way, those people giving the page a thorough read can be alerted to the difference, while those just scrolling down to get examples of the actual grammar point won't be confused by unrelated sentences.
Does this keep everyone happy?
 

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