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<< days | de, ni, mae >>

〜で [〜で] (de)
    Meaning: by means of, by, [action] at a place
    Example: I came by car.
    JLPT Level: 4
    Category: grammar
    Author: Amatuka

  [ Edit This Grammar Entry ]

  Notes:  
で has many uses. It can be used for sentences like:

I went to the park by bus.
バスで公園に行きました。

Or 'with' when talking about objects such as:

パソコンで日本語とイタリア語を勉強しています。- With my PC, I'm studying Japanese and Italian.

It can be used with 'jibun' (myself) and hitori (alone)

一人でこのケーキを作りました。-I made this cake alone.

自分で料理しました。- I cooked by myself.

It can be used as a price for something:

曙ワドルでゲームを買いました。- I bought this game at the price for 15 dollars.

A location where something took place:

喫茶店でドーナツを食べました。- I ate a doughnut at the cafe.

It can mean 'within'...

一日で本を読みました。- I read it within a day.


 
(Sakuratree)

[ Add Note(s) ]
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on Rikai.com

ex #694   来ました。 [kuruma dekimashita. ] 
(I) came by car.  
 [edit]  
(Amatuka)
ex #695   ひとり行きますか。[hitori deikimasu ka. ] 
Are you going by youself?  
 [edit]  
(Amatuka)
ex #4782   ペン書く。 
I write with a pen.  
 [edit]  
(Miki)
ex #7235   町角 
At the corner of the street  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7236   食料品店それを買いました。 
I bought it at the grocer's shop.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7237   彼女はその市働いている。 
She works in that city.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7238   泳ぐのが好きです。 
I like swimming in the sea.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7239   通り遊ぶ。 
Play in/on the street.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7240   この店は八時閉店です。 
This store closes at eight o'clock.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7241   私は三回目試験に合格しました。 
I passed the test on on the 3rd time.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7242   彼は八十歳亡くなりました。 
He passed away at the age of 88.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7243   二、三日帰るつもりです。 
I plan to return home in two or three days.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7244   ナイフ肉を切るのは本当に難しい。 
Cutting meat with a knife is really difficult.  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #7245   みずほお勤めですか。 
Do you work at at Mizuho?  
 [edit]  
(IMABI)
ex #8626   彼は鉛筆手紙を書きました。 
He wrote a letter with a pencil.  
 [edit]  
(Sakuratree)

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  See Also:  
[ Add a See Also ]
  Comments:  
EekerAs with である, I do not see why this has it's own page. で is the "て-form" of だ and as such operates largely the same way any て-form would. For example: そのペンを使って書いた。- "I wrote it using that pen". The fragment "using that pen" is equivalent to the fragment "by car" in the example given by the author. This simply means that when だ's て-form is used (で) with a noun, we add "by", whereas in the case of a different verb's て-form, that verb + ing suffices in expressing the means by which something is done. When critically analyzing the fundamental grammatical structure of this Japanese without applying our English-based perceptions to it, で should not be distinguished from だ on a separate page. It's colloquial interpretations according to English-based perceptions might just be sidenotes on that page. 
anonEeker, why don't you make a new entry? 
SynonymousI think that convoluted explanation proves why "de" needs its own separate page. While the explanation may be correct, it's too labyrinthine to be usefully instructive when "de" pops up in Japanese study (quite early). "De" functions as a particle, regardless of its roots, and it's too comon a term to be stuck as a footnote to "da". It deserves its own page. 
denzilI find it most helpful to have the convoluted explanation and the technically redundant but simpler entry in the same place. Thanks Amatuka and Eeker. 
balrog-kunThis might be a result of applying the English-based (or foreign-based in general) perceptions, but most of the people reading this are actually English speakers trying to learn Japanese and articles like this one make the learning easier, especially in the early stage, when you don't necesarily know about て-forms. 
9000Eeker, thanks for the explanation. Suddenly です as 「-で あります」starts to make much more sense. 
grenSometimes a で is just a で.........
if you bring up that first explanation to an average japanese person, they`d probably look at you like you were nuts!!!!
 
jameserbI agree with dezil and 9000--lights and bells went off after I read Eeker's entry. That said, I'm rarely a purist, and I think a separate entry is merited for the JLPT 2/3 levels (including at least a pointer to Eeker's entry). Thanks everyone for your contributions.
 
IMABII put many usages of the word de up on my site where I teach Japanese www.freewebs.com/kanjiwebs/ as this is not near enough of examples for people to know what de is. At least 1 example for each usage and that is not near as what is shown here. 
jdrankinWhile I appreciate, though seldom understand, the nuances of language, as a beginner in the learning of Japanese, I really appreciate keeping things as simple as possible, such as giving ”で”it's own entry. Also, I am grateful for the use of hirigana in addition to kanji. 

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