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Advanced proximity of actions [が早いか、や否や、そばから] (close_actions)
    Meaning: Advanced proximity of actions (が早いか、や否や、そばから)
    JLPT Level: 1
    Category: lesson
    Author: TaeKim

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Events that occur right after

In this section, we will be covering some advanced grammar that describe an action that takes place right after something else has occurred. I suggest you look over this section if you are really serious about completely mastering Japanese, or if you plan to take the level 1 JLPT exam, or if you enjoy reading a lot of Japanese literature.

Using 「が早いか」 to describe the instant something occurred

The phrase 「が早いか」 is used to describe something that happened the instant something else occurred.
It is more common to use the word 「すぐ」 with the te-form of the verb to describe the same type of thing but 「が早いか」 has a more instantaneous nuance. In addition, unlike 「すぐ」, which simply means "soon", 「が早いか」 has several distinct characteristics.

First of all, this grammar is used to describe an action that immediately occurs as a direct result of the first verb so it is unnatural to use this grammar for unrelated or naturally occurring events. For instance, you would not use it to say, "It started raining the moment we went out" because it was going to rain whether or not you went out. In addition, this grammar is only used for things that have actually occurred and therefore always employs the past tense. This site gives a very detailed description of the particulars of this grammar.

To use this grammar, you attach 「が早いか」 to the first verb, then you describe the event that happened the next instant. While it's conventional to use the non-past tense (dictionary form) for the first verb, you can also use the past tense. For example, you can say either 「言うが早いか」 or 「言ったが早いか」. The curious thing about this grammar is that the 「が」 particle comes right after the verb. Remember, you can do this only with this specific grammatical phrase.
Using 「が早いか」 to describe what happened the instant something occurred
  • Attach 「が早いか」 to the non-past or past tense of the verb that just occurred
    例) 言う → 言うが早いか
    例) 言 → 言った → 言ったが早いか
  • You can only use this grammar only for events that are directly related.
  • You can only use this grammar only for events that actually happened (past tense).
  • Refer to this site for more details.

Examples


(1) 彼女は、教授の姿を見るが早いか、教室から逃げ出した。
- The instant [she] saw the teacher's figure, [she] ran away from the classroom.

(2) 「食べてみよう」と言うが早いか、口の中に放り込んだ。
- The instant [he] said "let's try eating it", he threw [it] into his mouth.

(3) 「食べてみよう」と言ったが早いか、口の中に放り込んだ。
- The instant [he] said "let's try eating it", he threw [it] into his mouth.

Using 「や/や否や」 to describe what happened right after

The 「や」 or 「や否や」(やいなや) phrase, when appended to a verb, is used to described something that happened right after that verb. Its meaning is essential the same as 「が早いか」. It is also another type of grammar that is not really used in regular conversational Japanese.
「否」 (read here as 「いな」) is a fancy Kanji for "no" used in words like 「否定」 and similar to 「不」. The literal meaning of this grammar is "whether the action was taken or not". In order words, the second action is taken before you even take the time to determine whether the first event really happened or not.

You can use this grammar by attaching 「や」 or 「や否や」 to the dictionary form of the first verb that occurred. Since this grammar is used for events that already have occurred, the second verb is usually in the past tense. However, you can use the dictionary tense to indicate that the events happen regularly. Refer to this site to see more examples and details about this grammar.
Using 「や/や否や」 to describe what happened right after
  • Attach 「や」 or 「や否や」(やいなや) to the dictionary form of the first verb that occurred
    例) 見る → 見
    例) 見る → 見や否や
  • This grammar is almost always used for events that actually happened (past tense).
  • This grammar can be used with the present tense for regularly occurring events.
  • Refer to this site for more details.

Examples


(1) 私の顔を見るや、何か言おうとした。
- [He] tried to say something as soon as he saw my face.

(2) 搭乗のアナウンスが聞こえるや否や、みんながゲートの方へ走り出した。
- As soon as the announcement to board was audible, everybody started running toward the gate.

Using 「そばから」 to describe an event that repeatedly occurs soon after

「そばから」 is yet another grammar that describes an event that happens right after another. However, unlike the expressions we have covered so far, 「そばから」 implies that the events are a recurring pattern. For example, you would use this grammar to express the fact that you just clean and clean your room only for it to get dirty again soon after.
Besides this difference, the rules for using this expression is exactly the same as 「が早いか」 and 「や否や」. Just attach 「そばから」 to the dictionary form of the first verb that occurred. The past tense, though rare, also appears to be acceptable. However, the event that immediately follows is usually expressed with the non-past dictionary form because this grammar is used for repeated events and not a specific event in the past. You can take a look at this site for more details and examples.
Using 「そばから」 to describe an event that repeatedly occurs soon after
  • Attach 「そばから」 to the dictionary form of the first verb that occurred
    例) 読む → 読むそばから
    例) する → するそばから
  • This grammar implies that the events occur repeatedly.
  • Refer to this site for more details.

Examples


(1) 子供が掃除するそばから散らかすから、もうあきらめたくなった。
- The child messes up [the room] (repeatedly) as soon as I clean so I already became wanting to give up.

(2) 教科書を読んだそばから忘れてしまうので勉強ができない。
- Forget (repeatedly) right after I read the textbook so I can't study.

Copyright © 2003-2006 Tae Kim (kimchi314@yahoo.co.jp)
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      Comments:  
    HeatherThere is a mistake in the green box that describes how to form the ya/ina-ya construction. It shows the construction being attached to the stem of the verb, not the dictionary form of the verb. 
    winterkoninkjeAnother, less important, typo is that the third sentence for が早いか is the same as the second. 
    benkyouchuuwinterkoninkje, actually they're not the same. Those two examples try to demonstrate you can attach が早いか to both the dictionary form and the past tense.  
    mochabeanIs this level 2? My books list all three grammar points as level 1, and the two entries for や否や and が早いか on this site are listed as level 1, too. 
    DrJonesThe very article states that this is JLPT 1, so I fixed the level 

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